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Psychedelic Research

Nutt D, Crome I, Young AH. Is it now time to prepare psychiatry for a psychedelic future? The British Journal of Psychiatry. Published online 2024:1-3. doi:10.1192/bjp.2024.76

Ritchie, O. D., Donley, C. N., & Ritchie, G. D. (2023). From prohibited to prescribed: The rescheduling of MDMA and psilocybin in Australia. Drug Science, Policy and Law, 9, 20503245231198472.

Celidwen, Y., Redvers, N., Githaiga, C., Calambás, J., Añaños, K., Chindoy, M. E., … & Sacbajá, A. (2023). Ethical principles of traditional Indigenous medicine to guide western psychedelic research and practice. The Lancet Regional Health-Americas, 18, 100410.

Perkins, D., Sarris, J., Rossell, S. L., Bonomo, Y. A., Forbes, D., Davey, C. G., … Castle, D. (2021). [In Press] Medicinal psychedelics for mental health and addiction : advancing research of an emerging paradigm. Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Psychiatry.

Sessa, Ben. (2014). Why Psychiatry Needs Psychedelics and Psychedelics Need Psychiatry. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46:1, 57-62, DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2014.877322

Winkelman,M. J., (2015) Psychedelics as Medicines for Substance Abuse Rehabilitation: Evaluating Treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca

Majić, T., Schmidt, T. T., and Gallinat, J. (2015). Peak experiences and the afterglow phenomenon: When and how do therapeutic effects of hallucinogens depend on psychedelic experiences? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(3):241-253

David E. Nichols. Psychedelics. Pharmacological Reviews April 1, 2016, 68 (2) 264-355; DOI:

Carhart-Harris, R. L. and Goodwin, G. M. (2017) The Therapeutic Potential of Psychedelic Drugs: Past, Present, and Future. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(11):2105-2113

Greif, A., & Šurkala, M. (2020). Compassionate use of psychedelics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s11019-020-09958-z

Nichols, D. E., Johnson, M. W., and Nichols, C. D. (2017). Psychedelics as Medicines: An Emerging New Paradigm. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 101(2):209-219.

Letheby, C. and Gerrans, P. (2017) Self unbound: ego dissolution in psychedelic experience.

Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2018). How do psychedelics work? Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 32(1):16-21.

Johnson, M. W., Hendricks, P. S., Barrett, F. S., and Griffiths, R. R. (2018) Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 197:83-102

Swanson, L. R. (2018) Unifying theories of psychedelic drug effects. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9:172

Belouin, S. J. and Henningfeld, J. E. (2018). Psychedelics: Where we are now, why we got here, what we must do. Neuropharmacology, 142:7-19.

Reiche, S., Hermle, L., Gutwinski, S., Jungaberle, H., Gasser, P., and Majic, T. (2018). Serotonergic hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from a life-threatening disease: A systematic review. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 81:1-10.

dos Santos, R.G, Bouso, J.C., Alcázar-Córcoles, M.A. and Hallak, J.E.C. (2018) Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of serotonergic psychedelics for the management of mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders: a systematic review of systematic reviews, Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 11(9):889-902

Carhart-Harris, R. L. and Friston K. J. (2019) REBUS and the Anarchic Brain: Toward a Unified Model of the Brain Action of Psychedelics, Pharmacological Reviews, 71(3):316-344

dos Santos, R. G. and Hallak, J. E. C. (2019). Therapeutic use of serotoninergic hallucinogens: a review of the evidence and of the biological and psychological mechanisms. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 108:423-434.

Polito, V. and Stevenson, R. J. (2019) A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics. PLoS ONE 14(2):e0211023

Winkelman, Michael & Sessa, Ben. (2019). Advances in psychedelic medicine: state of the art therapeutic applications

Vollenweider, F. X. and Preller, K. H. (2020). Psychedelic drugs: neurobiology and potential for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 21:611-624

Nutt, David & Carhart-Harris, Robin. (2020). The Current Status of Psychedelics in Psychiatry. JAMA Psychiatry. 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.2171.

Luoma, J. B., Chwyl, C., Bathje, G. J., Davis, A.K. and Lancelotta, R. (2020) A Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 52(4):289-299

Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., and Griffiths, R. R. (2020). Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 15:39-45.

Breeksema, J. J., Niemeijer, A. R., Krediet, E., Vermetten, E., and Schoevers, R. A. (2020). Psychedelic Treatments for Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Patient Experiences in Qualitative Studies. CNS drugs, 34:925–946.

Wolff, M., Evens, R., Mertens, L. J., Koslowski, M., Betzler, F., Grunder, G., and Jungaberle, H. (2020). Learning to Let Go: A Cognitive-Behavioral Model of How Psychedelic Therapy Promotes Acceptance. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11:5.

Williams M. & Warner M. (July/August 2020). The Psychedelic Renaissance. Australasian Science.

Zeifman, R. J., Wagner, A. C., Watts, R., Kettner, H., Mertens, L. J. and Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2020). Post-psychedelic reductions in experiential avoidance are associated with decreases in depression severity and suicidal ideation. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11:782

Luoma, Jason & Chwyl, Christina & Bathje, Geoff & Davis, Alan & Lancelotta, Rafael. (2020). A Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy. Journal of psychoactive drugs. 52. 10.1080/02791072.2020.1769878.

Aday JS, Mitzkovitz CM, Bloesch EK, Davoli CC, Davis AK. Long-term effects of psychedelic drugs: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020 Jun;113:179-189. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.03.017. Epub 2020 Mar 16. PMID: 32194129.

Fotiou, E. (2020). The role of Indigenous knowledges in psychedelic science, Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 4(1), 16-23.

Winstock A. R., Timmerman C., Davies E., Maier L. J. Zhuparris A. Ferris J. A. Barratt M. J. & Kuypers KPC (2021). Global Drug Survey (GDS) 2020 Psychedelics Key Findings Report.

David B. Yaden , Matthew W. Johnson, Roland R. Griffiths, Manoj K. Doss, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Sandeep Nayak, Natalie Gukasyan, Brian N. Mathur, Frederick S. Barrett. (2021). Psychedelics and Consciousness: Distinctions, Demarcations, and Opportunities.

C. J. Healy , Kellie Ann Lee, Wendy D’Andrea (2021). Using Psychedelics With Therapeutic Intent Is Associated With Lower Shame and Complex Trauma Symptoms in Adults With Histories of Child Maltreatment

Winkelman, M. J. and Rodríguez Arce J. M. (2021) Psychedelics, Sociality, and Human Evolution

de Vos Cato M. H., Mason Natasha L., Kuypers Kim P. C. (2021).
Psychedelics and Neuroplasticity: A Systematic Review Unraveling the Biological Underpinnings of Psychedelics

Carhart-Harris, R. L., Wagner, A. C., Agrawal, M., Kettner, H., Rosenbaum, J. F., Gazzaley, A., … & Erritzoe, D. (2022). Can pragmatic research, real-world data and digital technologies aid the development of psychedelic medicine?. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 36(1), 6-11.

Polito, V., & Liknaitzky, P. (2022). The emerging science of microdosing: A systematic review of research on low dose psychedelics (1955–2021) and recommendations for the field. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 104706.

  • Systematic review of 44 studies involving microdosing
  • Analysed a vast range of mental and physical factors
  • All evidence indicated clear improvements in cognition, mental health, and a change in conscious state
  • Self-report studies also found improvements in creativity, attention, wellbeing, positive personality changes, greater connection to nature, mood, sociability, and emotional processing
  • Self-report studies were considered to be more reliable, as reports came from the long-term effects of microdosing, in contrast to lab studies analysing effects only after a single microdose
  • Recommendations were also made for future microdosing studies in regards to dose, placebo control, safety and study designs

Psilocybin Research

Pearson, C., Siegel, J., & Gold, J. A. (2021). Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for depression: Emerging research on a psychedelic compound with a rich history. Journal of the neurological sciences, 434, 120096. Advance online publication.

Individual Experiences in Four Cancer Patients Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy. Malone, et al. Frontiers in Pharmacology. April 2018. 57(4): 354-388,

Cancer at the Dinner Table: Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Cancer-Related Distress. Swift, et al. Journalist of Humanistic Psychology. June 2017. 57(5), 488-519,

Patient Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Belser, et. al. Journal of Humnistic Psychology. April 2017. 57(4): 354-388, doi: 10.1177/0022167817706884

Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. Griffiths, et al. Journal of Psychopharmacology. December 2016. 30: 1181-1197, doi:10.1177/0269881116675513.

Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Ross, et al. Journal of Psychopharmacology. December 2016. 30: 1165-1180, doi:10.1177/026988111667551.

Pilot Study of Psilocybin Treatment for Anxiety in Patients With Advanced-Stage Cancer. 2011. Grob CS, Danforth AL, Chopra GS, Hagerty M, McKay CR, Halberstadt AL, Greer GR. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Jan 2011, 68(1):71-8.

Metaxa, A. M., & Clarke, M. (2024). Efficacy of psilocybin for treating symptoms of depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. bmj, 385.

Raison, C. L., Sanacora, G., Woolley, J., Heinzerling, K., Dunlop, B. W., Brown, R. T., … & Griffiths, R. R. (2023). Single-Dose Psilocybin Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA.

Gukasyan, N., Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., Cosimano, M. P., Sepeda, N. D., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2022). Efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted treatment for major depressive disorder: Prospective 12-month follow-up. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 36(2), 151-158.

Goodwin, G. M., Aaronson, S. T., Alvarez, O., Arden, P. C., Baker, A., Bennett, J. C., … & Malievskaia, E. (2022). Single-dose psilocybin for a treatment-resistant episode of major depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 387(18), 1637-1648.

Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression, Robin Carhart-Harris, Ph.D., Bruna Giribaldi, B.Sc.,  Rosalind Watts, D.Clin.Psy., Michelle Baker-Jones, B.A.,  Ashleigh Murphy-Beiner, M.Sc., Roberta Murphy, M.D., Jonny Martell, M.D., Allan Blemings, M.Sc., David Erritzoe, M.D., and David J. Nutt, M.D. N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1402-1411 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2032994

Mertens, L. J., Wall, M. B., Roseman, L., Demetriou, L., Nutt, D. J., and Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2020). Therapeutic mechanisms of psilocybin: Changes in amygdala and prefrontal functional connectivity during emotional processing after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 34(2):167-180.

More Realistic Forecasting of Future Life Events After Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression. Lyons, et al. Frontiers in Psychology. October 2018. 9(1721): 1-11, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01721

Clinical potential of psilocybin as a treatment for mental health conditions. Ment Health Clin [Internet]. Daniel J, Haberman M. 2017;7(1):24-8. DOI: 10.9740/mhc.2017.01.024

Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression. Roseman, et al. Frontiers in Pharmacology. January 2018. 8(974): 1-10, doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00974.

Patients’ Accounts of Increased “Connectedness” and “Acceptance” After Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression. Watts, et al. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. June 2017. 57(5): 520-564,

Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: six-month follow-up. Carhart-Harris, et al. Psychopharmacology. November 2017. 235(2):399-408,

Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: fMRI-measured brain mechanisms. 2017. Carhart-Harris RL, Roseman L, Bolstridge M, Demetriou L, Pannekoek JN, Wall MB, Tanner M, Kaelen M, McGonigle J, Murphy K, Leech R, Curran HV, Nutt DJ. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 13187 (2017), doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13282-7.

Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study. 2016. Carhart-Harris RL, Boldstridge M, Rucker J, Day CMJ, Erritzoe D, Kaelen M, Bloomfield M, Rickard JA, Forbes B, Feilding A, Taylor D, Pilling S, Curran VH, Nutt DJ. The Lancet Psychiatry. 17 May 2016.

Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., May, D. G., Cosimano, M. P., Sepeda, N. D., Johnson, M. W., Finan, P. H., & Griffiths, R. R. (2020). Effects of Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy on Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA psychiatry, e203285

Psilocybin-assisted therapy for depression: How do we advance the field? 2019. Sally E Meikle, Paul Liknaitzky, Susan L Rossell, Margaret Ross, Nigel Strauss, Neil Thomas, Greg Murray,Martin Williams and David J Castle. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. November 2019. 9(1721): 1-11, doi:

Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: Preliminary results from a randomized controlled trial 2019. Alan K. Davis PhD, Darrick G. May MD, Mary Cosimano MSW, Matthew W. Johnson PhD, Frederick S. Barrett PhD, Roland R. Griffiths PhD. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Psychedelic Research Unit

Patients’ Accounts of Increased “Connectedness” and “Acceptance” After Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 57(5), 520–564. Watts, R., Day, C., Krzanowski, J., Nutt, D., & Carhart-Harris, R. (2017).

Davis AK, Barrett FS, May DG, et al. Effects of Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy on Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(5):481–489. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.3285

Lifetime use of MDMA/ecstasy and psilocybin is associated with reduced odds of major depressive episodes. Journal of Psychopharmacology. Jones GM, Nock MK. January 2022. doi:10.1177/02698811211066714

Gukasyan, N., Davis, A. K., Barrett, F. S., Cosimano, M. P., Sepeda, N. D., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2022). Efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted treatment for major depressive disorder: Prospective 12-month follow-up. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 36(2), 151–158.

Percentage of Heavy Drinking Days Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy vs Placebo in the Treatment of Adult Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Bogenschutz MP, Ross S, Bhatt S, et al. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online August 24, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.2096

Medicinal psychedelics for mental health and addiction: Advancing research of an emerging paradigm. Perkins D, Sarris J, Rossell S, et al. 2021. doi:10.1177/0004867421998785

Clinical Interpretations of Patient Experience in a Trial of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder. Bogenschutz, et al. Frontiers in Pharmacology. February 2018. 9(100):1-7,

Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions. 2015. Bogenschutz MP, Johnson MW. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol BiolPsychiatry. Mar 2015.

Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation: Abstinence outcomes and qualitative analysis of participant accounts. 2015. Garcia-Romeu AP, Noorani T, Griffiths RR, Johnson MW. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, Volume 156, e78. DOI.

Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study. 2015. Bogenschutz MP, Forcehimes AA, Pommy JA, Wilcox CE, Barbosa PC, Strassman RJ. J Psychopharmacol. 29 Mar 2015, (3):289-99. doi: 10.1177/0269881114565144. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction. 2014. Johnson MW, Garcia-Romeu A, Cosimano MP, Griffiths RR. J Psychopharmacol. 28 Nov 2014, (11):983-92. doi: 10.1177/0269881114548296. Epub 2014 Sep 11.

Bogenschutz, M. P., Ross, S., Bhatt, S., Baron, T., Forcehimes, A. A., Laska, E., … & Worth, L. Percentage of Heavy Drinking Days Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy vs Placebo in the Treatment of Adult Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA psychiatry.

Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Psilocybin in 9 Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.2006. Moreno FA, Wiegand CB, Taitano EK, Delgado PL. J Clin Psychiatry. Nov 2006, 67(11):1735-40.

Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD. 2006. Sewell RA, Halpern JH, Pope HG Jr. Neurology. 27 Jun 2006, 66(12):1920-2.

Rethinking Therapeutic Strategies for Anorexia Nervosa: Insights From Psychedelic Medicine and Animal Models 2020.

A potential role for psilocybin in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder 2020. Jacobs E.
Journal of Psychedelic Studies. July 2020.

Rootman, J.M., Kiraga, M., Kryskow, P. et al. Psilocybin microdosers demonstrate greater observed improvements in mood and mental health at one month relative to non-microdosing controls. Sci Rep 12, 11091 (2022).

Exploratory Controlled Study of the Migraine-Suppressing Effects of Psilocybin 2020. Emmanuelle A. D. Schindler & R. Andrew Sewell & Christopher H. Gottschalk & Christina Luddy & L. Taylor Flynn & Hayley Lindsey & Brian P. Pittman & Nicholas V. Cozzi & Deepak C. D’Souza. Neurotherapeutics. October 27th 2020

Legalising Access to Psilocybin To End The Agony Of Cluster Headaches. An ethical and evidence-based approach to treating one of the most excruciating conditions known to medicine, November 2020 by OPIS.

Psilocybin-assisted group therapy for demoralized older long-term AIDS survivor men: An open-label safety and feasibility pilot study Anderson, B. et al. September 2020.

Psychedelics as Novel Therapeutics in Alzheimer’s Disease: Rationale and Potential Mechanisms. Garcia-Romeu, Albert & Darcy, Sean & Jackson, Hillary & White, Toni & Rosenberg, Paul., November 2021

Touyz, S., Hay, P. The future of eating disorders research: an editorial. J Eat Disord 10, 10 (2022).

Winkelman, M. J., Szabo, A., & Frecska, E. (2023). The potential of psychedelics for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 76, 3-16.


Max Wolff, Felix Betzler, Ricarda Evens, Gerhard Gründer, Michael Koslowski, Lea J. Mertens, Henrik Jungaberle. (2020). Learning to Let Go: A Cognitive-Behavioral Model of How Psychedelic Therapy Promotes Acceptance.

REBUS and the Anarchic Brain: Toward a Unified Model of the Brain Action of Psychedelics. R. L. Carhart-Harris and K. J. Friston. Pharmacological Reviews. July 2019. 71:316–344, doi:

High dose psilocybin is associated with positive subjective effects in healthy volunteers.Nicholas, et al. Journal of Psychopharmacology. July 2018. 32(7): 770-778, doi: 10.1177/

Survey study of challenging experiences after ingesting psilocybin mushrooms: Demographics and phenomenology. 2010. Carbonaro TM, Barrett FS, Bradstreet MP, Johnson MW, MacLean KA, Jesse R, Griffiths RR. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. Oct 2010. Volume 146, e239 – e240, 2015.

Psilocybin Biases Facial Recognition, Goal-Directed Behavior, and Mood State Toward Positive Relative to Negative Emotions Through Different Serotonergic Subreceptors. 2012. Kometer M, Schmidt A, Bachmann R, Studerus E, Seifritz E, Vollenweider FX. Biological Psychiatry. Volume 72, Issue 11, 1 Dec 2012, Pages 898-906, ISSN 0006-3223.

Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects.2011. Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, Richards, WA, Richards BD, McCann U, Jesse R. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Dec, 218(4):649-65. Epub 15 Jun 2011.

Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. 2011. MacLean KA, Johnson MW, Griffiths RR. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11), 1453-1461.

Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies. 2011. Studerus E, Kometer M, Hasler F, Vollenweider FX. J Psychopharmacol. 25 Nov 2011: 1434-1452, first published on 20 September 2010 doi: 10.1177/0269881110382466

Non-hallucinogenic psychedelic analog reverses effects of stress in mouse study. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 26, 2021 from University of California – Santa Cruz. (2021, May 25).

MDMA Research

MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study Mitchell, J.M., Bogenschutz, M., Lilienstein, A. et al. MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Nat Med 27, 1025–1033 (2021).

PRESS RELEASE: Interim Analysis Shows At Least 90%Chance of Statistically Significant Difference in PTSD Symptoms after MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy. Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. (2020).

MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD: study design and rationale for phase 3 trials based on pooled analysis of six phases 2 randomized controlled trials. Mithoefer, M. C., Feduccia, A. A., Jerome, L., Mithoefer, A., Wagner, M., Walsh, Z., … & Doblin, R. (2019).Psychopharmacology, 236(9), 2735-2745.

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Site Phase 3 Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Manualized MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Severe Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.  MAPS Public Benefit Corporation. (2018). Version 1.

3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized phase 2 controlled trial. Ot’alora G, M., Grigsby, J., Poulter, B., Van Derveer III, J. W., Giron, S. G., Jerome, L., … & Mithoefer, M. C.  Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(12), 1295-1307. (2018).

A Manual for MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Version 8. Mithoefer, M (2016)

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans, firefighters, and police officers: A randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 clinical trial. Mithoefer, MC, Mithoefer, AT, Feduccia, AA. Lancet Psychiatry. 5: 486–497. (2018)

Jerome, L., Feduccia, A. A., Wang, J. B., Hamilton, S., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Emerson, A., … Doblin, R. (2020). Long-term follow-up outcomes of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD: a longitudinal pooled analysis of six phase 2 trials. Psychopharmacology. doi:10.1007/s00213-020-05548-2

Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy: Clinical Implications. Collin M. Reiff, M.D., Elon E. Richman, M.D., Charles B. Nemeroff, M.D., Ph.D., Linda L. Carpenter, M.D., Alik S. Widge, M.D., Ph.D., Carolyn I. Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D., Ned H. Kalin, M.D., William M. McDonald, M.D., and the Work Group on Biomarkers and Novel Treatments, a Division of the American Psychiatric Association Council of
Research. Am J Psychiatry, 1-20. (2020).

Davey, C., Out of the night-time and into the day: Ketamine and MDMA as therapies for mental disorders (2021)

First study of safety and tolerability of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy in patients with alcohol use disorder: preliminary data on the first four participants. Sessa B, Sakal C, O’Brien S, Nutt D. F. BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Jul 15;12(7):e230109. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-230109. PMID: 31308191; PMCID: PMC6663239.

A Review of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-Assisted Psychotherapy. Sessa Ben, Higbed Laurie, Nutt David,Frontiers in Psychiatry, volume 10, 138. (2019).

The therapeutic effect of increased openness: Investigating the mechanism of action in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Wagner, M. T., Mithoefer, M. C., Mithoefer, A. T., MacAulay, R. K., Jerome, L., Yazar-Klosinski, B., & Doblin, R. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 31(8), 967-974. (2017).

A proof-of-principle study of the short-term effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on tinnitus and neural connectivity Searchfield, G & Poppe, T.N.E.R. & Durai, M. & Jensen, M. & Kennedy, M.A. & Maggo, S. & Miller, A.L & Park, J & Russell, B & Shekhawat, Giriraj & Spiegel, D. & Sundram, Frederick & Wise, K.  International Journal of Neuroscience, 32(12), 1295-1307. (2019).

The cost-effectiveness of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD Elliot Marseille, James G. Kahn, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Rick Doblin Plos One 15 (10): e0239997 (October, 2020)

Safety pharmacology of acute MDMA administration in healthy subjects. Vizeli, P, Liechti, ME J Psychopharmacol 31: 576–588.(2017)

Treatment outcomes for depression: challenges and opportunities. Pim Cuijpers, Argyris Stringaris and Miranda Wolpert (2021).

Lifetime use of MDMA/ecstasy and psilocybin is associated with reduced odds of major depressive episodes. Journal of Psychopharmacology. Jones GM, Nock MK. January 2022. doi:10.1177/02698811211066714

Historical Context

Chemical evidence for the use of multiple psychotropic plants in a 1,000-year-old ritual bundle from South America Melanie J. Miller, Juan Albarracin-Jordan, Christine Moore, and José M. Capriles (2019).

Radiocarbon Dating of Atacama (Chile) Snuff Trays: An Update on Stylistic and Chronological Correlations Richardin, Pascale & Lavier, Catherine & Horta Tricallotis, Helena & Figueroa, Valentina & Lira, Nicolás. (2015). DOI:10.2458/azu_rc.57.18318

The oldest archeological data evidencing the relationship of Homo sapiens with psychoactive plants: A worldwide overview Giorgio Samorini (2019).


Wolfson, P., & Vaid, G. (2024). Ketamine-assisted psychotherapy, psychedelic methodologies, and the impregnable value of the subjective—a new and evolving approach. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 15, 1209419.

Dore, J., Turnipseed, B., Dwyer, S., Turnipseed, A., Andries, J., Ascani, G., … & Wolfson, P. (2019). Ketamine assisted psychotherapy (KAP): patient demographics, clinical data and outcomes in three large practices administering ketamine with psychotherapy. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 51(2), 189-198.

Rothberg, R. L., Azhari, N., Haug, N. A., & Dakwar, E. (2021). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by ketamine mediate its impact on at-risk drinking: Results from a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 35(2), 150–158.

Grabski, M., McAndrew, A., Lawn, W., Marsh, B., Raymen, L., Stevens, T., … & Morgan, C. J. (2022). Adjunctive ketamine with relapse prevention–based psychological therapy in the treatment of alcohol use disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 179(2), 152-162.

Ragnhildstveit, A., Slayton, M., Jackson, L. K., Brendle, M., Ahuja, S., Holle, W., … & Robison, R. (2022). Ketamine as a Novel Psychopharmacotherapy for Eating Disorders: Evidence and Future Directions. Brain Sciences, 12(3), 382.

Vaid, G., & Walker, B. (2022). Psychedelic psychotherapy: Building wholeness through connection. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 11, 2164957X221081113.

Zhang, J. C., Yao, W., & Hashimoto, K. (2022). Arketamine, a new rapid-acting antidepressant: A historical review and future directions. Neuropharmacology, 218, 109219.

Oliver, P. A., Snyder, A. D., Feinn, R., Malov, S., McDiarmid, G., & Arias, A. J. (2022). Clinical effectiveness of intravenous racemic ketamine infusions in a large community sample of patients with treatment-resistant depression, suicidal ideation, and generalized anxiety symptoms: a retrospective chart review. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 83(6), 42811.

DMT Research

LSD Research

Ayahuasca Research

Harm Minimisation

Psychedelics and Music

Clare O’Callaghan. (2020) Experience of Music Used With Psychedelic Therapy: A Rapid Review and Implications.

Mendel Kaelen & Bruna Giribaldi & Jordan Raine & Lisa Evans & Christopher Timmerman & Natalie Rodriguez & Leor Roseman & Amanda Feilding & David Nutt & Robin Carhart-Harris. (2018). The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy.

Frederick S. Barrett, Katrin H. Preller & Mendel Kaelen. (2018). Psychedelics and music: neuroscience and therapeutic implications.

Current Treatments

Treatment outcomes for depression: challenges and opportunities. Pim Cuijpers, Argyris Stringaris and Miranda Wolpert (2021).

Schnurr PP, Chard KM, Ruzek JI, et al. Comparison of Prolonged Exposure vs Cognitive Processing Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among US Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(1):e2136921. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3692

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